you know that "cookie" comes from the Dutch word "koekje or
koekie" and refers to a small cake. 'Cookies' in North America are defined
as small, sweet, flat or slightly raised baked goods. In the U.K. they are
called biscuits; in Spain they are called galletas; in Germany they are called
kels; and in Italy they are called biscotti. Every country has its favorite. In
the United States and Canada it is chocolate chip, in the U.K. its shortbread,
in France its sablés and macaroons, and in Italy biscotti.
are one of the fastest and easiest things to make. Generally they are a simple
combination of all-purpose flour, unsalted butter, granulated and/or brown
sugar, large eggs, baking powder/soda and flavorings. They come in many
different shapes, sizes, textures and flavors.
- a soft batter is spread evenly into a shallow pan, baked, and cut into
individual bars or pieces.
- a firm batter
is "dropped" onto a baking sheet using a spoon or ice cream scoop.
Each cookie should be of equal size and spaced evenly on baking sheet.
or Hand-Formed -
a firm batter is shaped into balls, logs, etc. or pressed into a mold. The
cookies are then placed on a baking sheet and baked.
or Pressed -
batter is either put in a pastry bag fitted with a decorative tip or placed into
a cookie press. The batter is then piped onto a baking sheet or pushed through
the cookie press into fancy shapes and baked.
or Icebox -
batter is shaped into a log, refrigerated until firm, evenly sliced into rounds,
placed on a baking sheet and baked.
- a firm batter
is rolled into a thin layer, shapes are then cut out using a cookie cutter,
cookies are placed on a baking sheet and baked.
USED FOR MIXING BATTER:
- The fat and sugar are placed into a mixing bowl and creamed together. The eggs
and any liquid are added. Finally, the flour and leavening agent are added and
mixed just until combined.
- All the ingredients are placed into a mixing bowl and blended together until a
smooth batter is formed.
cookies brown too quickly -
check to see if your oven is calibrated properly and not reading too high. You
can do this with a free standing oven thermometer. Another reason for
over-browning is from using dark-colored baking pans or sheets which promote
browning. Either reduce oven temperature by 25 degrees F (15 degrees C) or use
aluminum pans or sheets.
cookies brown too quickly on bottoms -
the same reasons as above but also your oven rack may be too low or the batter
has too much sugar in it.
cookies brown too quickly on top and the bottoms are not cooked enough -
the oven rack may be too high, the temperature is too high, or you are using
dark-colored baking pans or sheets.
cookies spread too much -
dough may be too soft. This is remedied by placing the dough in the refrigerator
for 15 minutes to firm up. Also, never place cookies on a warm baking sheet as
the batter will start to soften and spread even before you place them in the
oven. Cookies can also spread too much if placed on a greased baking sheet, when
the recipe states using an ungreased baking sheet. Cookies made with butter have
the tendency to spread more than cookies made with shortening.
cookies are too dry and hard
- it may simply be that the cookies were over baked. Also, if the oven was not
hot enough, they will take too long to bake and this causes them to dry out. The
batter could contain too much flour or not enough egg or liquid.